How Do Farmers Grow Crops? The industry’s development has failed to eliminate tenacious farmers who toil in their fields year after year. Crop cultivation is a demanding year-round job. Summer is the most difficult season because most crops are harvested, but farming is much more than a summer harvest. Have you ever wondered how farmers grow their crops?
Farmers grow crops by following the farming cycle steps. Farmers choose the crop to plant, prepare the soil, and select the seeds before planting. They irrigate the plant and add fertiliser if there is a nutritional deficit. When the crop is mature, it is time to harvest.
Crop cultivation varies by country. Cocoa will grow better in some areas, while it will be very difficult to grow cocoa in others, so the farmer will plant wheat, for example. Furthermore, the timing of crop planting is determined by the weather and climate in a given area, so knowing the weather conditions is essential before planting any type of plant. Crop farming is a difficult job with many external factors that the farmer cannot control. A farmer’s knowledge and experience can assist him in producing the best crops possible.
It is necessary to determine what will be planted in a specific field before planting crosses. The following dba factors must be considered when making this decision:
Given the local conditions, what can be planted?
To decide what to plant, the farmer must first understand the local climate, landscape, soil microorganisms, plants, and animals in the area where the crops will be planted. Not every crop can be grown everywhere on the planet. It can, but it will not succeed.
To grow crops, a farmer must understand how much rain falls annually in a specific area, which crops grow well in dry and moist soil, which crops grow well together, and what nutrients the crop requires. It can be difficult to make a decision at times, but because people have been farming for thousands of years, it is roughly known which crops thrive in which areas, making it easier for farmers to choose.
What will be the most easily sold on the market?
There is no point in producing crops that are not in demand, so when selecting a crop, consider which crop will sell best in a specific market. It is possible to export crops abroad, but this is not an option for all farmers, so you must conduct thorough market research and select the crop that will be easiest to sell at reasonable prices. It is worthwhile to consider which crops receive state subsidies. If your budget does not allow for many options, the government releases crop prices at the time of seeding for some crops, so this may be your best option.
Preparation of the Land
Before planting crops, we must first prepare the soil to ensure a successful harvest. Crop quality is affected by soil preparation. It also aids in weed control, recycling plant nutrients, and providing suitable soil for direct seeding. Land preparation is the mechanical tillage of soil that loosens, turns, and mixes the soil.
Soil tillage will begin with shallow or deep ploughing, depending on what was previously planted on the land. Tillage is used to improve soil structure and create a seedbed in the surface layer to a depth of sowing. Finally, the conditions for seed germination and easy sprouting are met. Organic and mineral fertilisers, as well as plant residues, are then added to the soil to enrich it and prepare it for seed planting.
Selection of Seeds
After you’ve decided on a crop, it’s time to select a seed. There are numerous seed varieties for each crop. Farmers select seeds that are best suited to the climatic conditions in which they will be planted. Furthermore, it is necessary to select seed varieties that will reduce the use of pesticides and have the fewest diseases that affect crops before harvest. Seed selection influences crop quality and makes crop care easier throughout the year.
Soil testing prior to planting can assist in determining the best seeds for a specific soil. Knowing the soil’s composition allows for the selection of seeds that are suited to the soil, resulting in better crops. Poor seed selection necessitates the use of numerous expensive fertilisers, pesticides, and supplements. Because the use of such products reduces crop quality, it is best to think carefully about seed selection from the start and avoid taking risks with any seeds.
Planting of Seeds
Sowing is the process of planting a seed in the soil so that it can germinate and grow into a plant. Each type of crop has a specific planting season. When planting, special attention should be paid to the weather conditions in order for the seeds to germinate successfully. Seeds can be sown in a variety of ways, including broadcasting, dibbling, drilling, and sowing behind a country plough.
Broadcasting is the oldest method of spreading seeds on the soil. It can be done manually or with the help of a mechanical spread or an aeroplane. The method is cheap, but the seeds are not evenly distributed, which can lead to uneven seed germination.
Dibbling is the process of placing seeds in evenly spaced and deep holes. This method uses less seed but requires a significant amount of time, money, and labour. Drilling is the process of placing seeds in holes and then covering them with soil. It is done with a seed drill and can be done in rows or at a specific distance. Fertilizers and amendments can be added while drilling. Sowing behind a country plough has been practised for centuries. The soil is first ploughed with a country plough, and the seed is then manually placed into furrows in the field.
Crops must be irrigated at the appropriate times in order to grow. Irrigation is the process of providing plants with controlled amounts of water at regular intervals. Agriculture cannot thrive in areas where rain falls only infrequently or seasonally.
Irrigation aids crop growth during periods when there is a long period without significant rain. Irrigation also allows farmers to plant crops on a regular basis, ensuring a consistent food supply.
Plant growth is influenced by four factors: light, water, temperature, and nutrients. These elements influence plant growth hormones, and as a result, the plant can grow quickly or slowly. Crop growth is also dependent on the crop’s ability to capture CO2, the root system’s ability to capture water and nutrients, and the crop’s ability to convert resources into dry matter.
When we understand what a crop requires to grow, it is obvious that a lack of any element can result in stunted growth or changes in growth. It is critical to monitor crop growth and detect any changes in order to react quickly and prevent permanent damage.
Fertilizing will undoubtedly aid plant growth. If we notice that the plant is not growing well despite having satisfied conditions such as water, light, and no weather, the problem is most likely a lack of nutrients. Nature struggles to replenish soil nutrients in the absence of fertilisers.
Fertilizers are most commonly composed of three minerals: nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. For example, if there is no nitrogen in the soil, the plant will not be able to obtain the necessary nutrients, so nitrogen fertiliser is added. Potassium is found deep beneath the soil’s surface; if the soil is not well ploughed or contains only trace amounts of potassium, the plant’s roots will be unable to reach it, necessitating the use of fertilisers.
Which fertiliser you will require is determined by the type of crop you are growing and the nutrient deficiencies in your soil. Plants grown in nutrient-deficient soil will be smaller and grow slower than those grown in nutrient-rich soil.
Harvesting used to be the most difficult aspect of crop production. It was also the most beautiful part because the farmer could finally see the results of their year-long efforts. It is time to harvest the crops once they have grown sufficiently. Harvesting is the process of removing entire plants or economically valuable parts after they have reached maturity. In the modern era, harvesters are mechanical systems that cut the crop rather than human hands.
Then comes threshing, which separates the paddy grain from the rest of the cut crop. It can be used in conjunction with other machinery that cleans the grain by removing immature, unfilled materials. The cut crop is then transported and stored.