What Do Farmers Grow? Farming is the organised process of growing plants to produce food for people and animals, as well as other products. Rice, corn and wheat are the three most expensive agricultural products produced on farms. China, India, the United States, and Brazil are the nations with the highest food production rates.
What Do Farmers Grow
The annual Poaceae plant known as corn is a native of Central America. It has been significant throughout history, particularly for the Central American people. It arrived in Europe around 1493 and, based on certain sources, 1535. The production of industrial corn products has increased to over 500 varieties.
The tree is tall and articulated, and it has separate male and female flowers as well as a fibrous root system. Its fruit is a cob with primarily yellow or white grains. Hybrids of many distinct varieties have also been bred. The qualities of the variety determine how long it takes for the plant to grow from germination to full ripeness.
All corn hybrids can be divided into early, medium early, and late vegetation plants according to how long their vegetation lasts. The characteristics of the plant itself, the range of applications, and the scale of production are what give corn its fundamental economic significance. The fact that practically every component of the maize plant can be processed is what gives corn its unique economic significance.
Corn seeds need 8°C to germinate at the very least. Plant degradation frequently occurs at cold temperatures (below -1°C). The tolerance of maize to low temperatures is increased by better nutrition, which contains potassium and phosphorus. Low temperatures, particularly fall frosts, can hinder ripening, stop vegetation, or even harm grain germination, which is extremely dangerous in the production of maize.
Indochina, the equatorial region of Africa, Peru, and Mexico are the cotton’s original growing regions. It is the top crop for making fibre. On the seed, fibre is created. The root system of cotton is strong. The main root immediately penetrates the soil and is formed like a spindle. Depending on the variety, cotton can grow up to 6 metres and can reach heights of 70 centimetres to 2 metres.
Where the air temperature does not drop below 0°C for six months, cotton can be grown. Cotton takes between 110 and 150 days to fully develop. 15°C is the required minimum temperature for growth and development, and 25–30°C is the ideal range. The time when it requires the most heat is when the fruit is developing and flowering.
It uses a lot of water and is a crucial element in determining the quantity of cotton produced and the number of quills per plant. Water intake is greatest throughout the flowering and fruit-forming stages. Due to its extensive root system, it can withstand droughts comparatively well. Cotton is a plant that prefers warm, structured, deep, and somewhat fertile soils. Sandy alluvial soils are ideal for their growth.
Cotton is harvested manually or mechanically, and it starts when 60–70% of the quills are open. Crop defoliation must be done before cotton harvesting in order to decrease contaminants and boost productivity. Following the picking of the quills, aggregation and linter machines are used to separate the long fibre from the seeds and the short fibre from the seeds. Each fibre is then individually balled after that.
The term “fruit” refers to the collection of seeds or fruits that are produced by mainly perennial trees and shrubs. From a botanical perspective, fruits differ from vegetables in that they have a structure resembling a seed and are produced from fertilised flowers, whereas vegetables grow from other parts of the plant.
The fruit is grown on every continent and flourishes anywhere there are suitable climate conditions and a favourable soil composition for a certain species. It is regarded as a high-quality food. Most species like somewhat acidic, well-drained soil, and sunny locations that are protected from strong winds are ideal for growing orchards.
Fruit trees can be sown in the fall, the winter, or the first few weeks of spring. The soil’s condition should not be excessively dry or freezing. It is advised to fence the orchard once seedlings are planted because young fruit trees are a favourite food for many mice. The technique for maintaining fruit trees after they have been planted differs based on the kind being farmed.
Apple is the cornerstone of fruit production and is used to gauge how profitable it is to develop other fruits. From the earliest summer until winter, its fruits ripen. This fruit contains fruit sugars and fruit acids, vitamins, minerals, pectins, and absolutely pure water—almost everything the human body requires. The apple needs deep soil with a sandy-loamy texture, plenty of humus and mineral fertilisers, and a field with adequate water-holding capacity.
The food, drug, and milling sectors all use wheat. The majority of the world’s arable land has been planted with it, making it the most significant crop. It ranks second in terms of overall grain yield production and is the most significant grain plant consumed by humans globally.
The primary food source for making flour for bread, cakes, and pasta, and for fermentation to produce beer, booze, vodka, and biofuels is wheat grains. Wheat is sown in a certain region as plants for livestock fodder or as a building material for roofs. The chemical makeup of the grain which in turn depends on the kind and quality of wheat, the environment in which it is grown, and manufacturing methods determine the quality of flour and other processed goods.
Wheat species and cultivars are separated into two main divisions, winter wheat and spring wheat, based on the mode of production. Winter wheat is more tolerant of milder winters. Due to their short growing season and greater tolerance for drought than winter wheat, spring wheat is produced in northern regions, at higher altitudes, and in arid continental regions.
A cereal known as rice is primarily grown in tropical and subtropical areas of Asia and Africa. Southeast Asia gave rise to one of the oldest cultures in history. About 3,000 years ago in China, it was grown there.
Rice can be produced successfully in humid tropical places and areas with temperate climates, and successful production depends on having enough water. Chaff, rice flour, sprouts, and broken grains are separated from grains during processing. Sprouts are a fantastic diet for chicks, and rice flour is a concentration for cattle feed.
The staple diet in tropically populated areas of Asia and Africa is rice. In addition to being high in carbohydrates, the grain also has a lot of proteins, lipids, vitamins, and minerals. Rice has high efficiency and is simple to digest. China, India, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Vietnam, and Thailand produce the most rice worldwide.
Cultivated plants and the components of those plants that are used in human diets are commonly referred to as vegetables. Vegetables are an essential component of the diet since they are high in carbs and proteins. Whole plants or just their separate parts (root, stem, and leaves), depending on the species, are utilised for sustenance.
Vegetables are incredibly important in the diet because of their high vitamin, mineral, cellulose, and low-fat content. The number of vitamins and minerals as well as the climate requirements for vegetables vary from species to species.
Water makes up 65 to 95% of vegetables (potatoes and legumes deviate from these percentages). Essential oils are primarily responsible for the aroma of several types of vegetables. Vegetables are abundant in many different nutrients, but because they are low in carbohydrates, proteins, and vegetable fats, they do not have a high-calorie value.
Most frequently, vegetables are categorised into:
- Leafy vegetables including kale, spinach, and cabbage
- Root vegetables, such as potatoes, carrots, parsley, celery, and beets
- Bulbous vegetables, including all varieties of onions and garlic
- Cauliflower, broccoli, artichokes, and other flowering veggies
- Fruit and vegetable items include beans, cucumbers, pumpkins, and eggplants.
An annual member of the legume family, soybeans are plants. Burgers, hot dogs, bread, desserts, tofu cheese, soy milk, and other foods all include soy. In China, East Asia, and South Asia, tofu cheese and soy milk have a long history in human nutrition, and in recent years, these foods have gained popularity throughout the world.
Human food also uses whole seeds that have been stewed or preserved. The seeds can be used to make items including flour, lecithin, oil, and more. In the food business, soybean oil is utilised for gelatin, mayonnaise, and salad dressings. The majority of the world’s soybean seeds are fed to cattle. The optimal soil for soybean growth is deep, structural, fertile, rich in humus, with good water and air qualities, no crust formation, and a pH reaction of 7. One of the greatest pre-crops for many field crops is soybeans.
In comparison to animal proteins, soy proteins lower the risk of renal disease and are good for the health of the kidneys. When used as a coagulant, tofu, or soy cheese, which is made by coagulating hot soy milk, can be a rich source of calcium. The United States, Brazil, Argentina, and China are the top soybean producers.